National Guard and Reserves Resource Guide
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Becker, Rita A.
Enlisted Navy Reservists and Their Intention to Stay in the Navy Reserves
Until Retirement Eligible.
Masterís Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005. 93 p.
Abstract: This thesis examines factors that influence the retention of
enlisted members in pay grades E1-E5 and E6 in the Selected Navy Reserve.
Data were extracted from the 2000-2001 Navy Reserve Career Decisions Survey.
Chi-square tests of independence were used to assess the relationship of
various demographic, unit-type, critical-rate, and reserve experience
variables to plans for retention to retirement eligibility. Thirteen factors
significantly associated with planned retention for E1-E5s and 10 for E6s
were identified. E6s indicated a higher retirement intention rate than
E1-E5s. For both pay grade groups, males indicated a higher retirement
intention rate than females, and married members indicated a higher
retirement intention rate than non-married members. E1-E6 Prior Service
members indicated a higher retirement intention rate than E1-E6 Non-Prior
Service members. For both groups, Reserve Center/Readiness Command unit type
was positively associated with planned retention while aviation and
shipboard unit types were not significantly related. For E1-E5s, retirement
intent was positively related to serving in a critical rating, while it was
not for E6s. For E1-E6s, retention plans also were strongly dependent on
opinions about quality of training, accomplishment recognition, family
impact, civilian job impact, educational benefits, and senior leadership.
Bellamy, Oliver. The Role of the Reserve Component
in Transformation and Its Effects on Active Component/Reserve Component
Integration. Strategy research report. U.S. Army War College, 09 Apr
2002. ADA404526. 33 p.
Abstract: The Reserve Component (RC) has played an
integral role in the Army's cold war strategy and can be expected to
continue playing a vital role as the Army's transformation campaign moves
forward. With the theme of transformation centered on the concept of a
lighter and more mobile force, we will see radical departures from the old
ways of doing business. This has significant implications not just for
combat forces, but also for support elements, which are heavily concentrated
in the RC. In this paper I will first explore the impact of Army
Transformation on the RC, examining its implications from both a combat and
support perspective. I propose to begin this examination by analyzing the RC
combat force, which is concentrated in the Army National Guard (ARNG),
focusing on its missions and structure. Particular attention will be given
to Guard's potential role as a Homeland Defense force and the need to
adjust its structure to support this role. Then, I will examine the Army's
strategy for reducing support in the battle- space (footprint reduction),
with emphasis on the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR). I will determine the extent
to which these efforts have moved forward and whether the USAR will have to
redefine itself (given its large support structure) in a reduced support in
environment. Next, I will examine transformation and current force
capabilities. There is a need for the Army to maintain current force
capabilities while transforming by recapitalizing existing equipment
throughout the total force. Finally, transformation holds the potential to
derail current integration efforts as the Army becomes disparate in its
capabilities with the entry of interim and objective units into the force.
Current fielding plans reflect legacy forces being concentrated in the RC
and Interim and objective forces concentrated in the AC during the mid to
later stages of transformation.
Binnendijk, Hans and others.
Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays.
National Defense University, Center for
Technology and National Security Policy, Feb 2005. ADA435065. 52 p.
Abstract: This volume contains four essays on various
aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are
serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like
homeland security demand their attention. In these essays, the authors
explore ways in which the Reserve Component might be transformed to face
these challenges. The first essay calls for a fundamental restructuring of
the Reserve Component in light of the largest mobilization since the Korean
War, which has been fraught with problems in terms of combat readiness as
well as pay, morale, and retention. Hans Binnendijk and Gina Cordero argue
that a high-level national commission may be needed to design and gain
support for that restructuring. In the second essay, Stephen M. Duncan calls
for a complete re-thinking of U.S. security requirements and the related
force structure, with an emphasis on the homeland security mission. In the
new security environment, the American homeland needs to be considered as
part of the battlespace. Duncan explores which conventional and homeland
security missions should be assigned to Active Force Units and which to
Reservists. Raymond F. Bell, Jr. argues in the third essay that one of the
challenges facing Army transformation is the lack of a shared culture
between the Active and Reserve Components. Bell examines how these separate
cultures have negatively affected the Army's effectiveness as an
organization and offers recommendations that move towards cultural change.
Civil Affairs units are a central element to stabilization and
reconstruction operations that require an integrated military and civilian
response. The final essay by Michael J. Baranick, Christopher Holshek, and
Larry Wentz proposes several ways to improve the overall effectiveness of
Civil Affairs units.
Blakely, Frank E. Call Out the Reserves: A Change
in Paradigm for the Army's Reserve Components. U.S. Army War College,
07 Apr 2003. ADA414966. 41 p.
Abstract: The Secretary of the Army initiated a study
of the Army's employment of active and reserve components. Simultaneously,
the Undersecretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness announced an
investigation that is evaluating the missions of the reserve components
with the objective of overhauling their structure and missions. The purpose
of this paper is to present a tool that can facilitate the decision-making
process for assigning Army units, both active and reserve, to a particular
mission, specifically Military Operations Other Than War. The paper also
examines the history of the current force structure and how the Army, with
its active and reserve components, can best provide a seamless force capable
of meeting the needs of the nation. It concludes with the proposal of an
algorithm for use in decision-making, examples of its application, and
suggestions for future research.
Brau, John W., Jr.
Improving the Quality and Personnel Fill Rates of U.S. Army Reserve
Units. Masterís thesis, Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2005. 59 p.
Abstract: The most critical component of sustaining combat-ready United
States Army Reserve (USAR) units is manning. Traditionally, the USAR has
focused on maintaining the Congressionally mandated End Strength Objective (ESO),
a total force requirement, at the expense of manning individual units.
Historically, the AR has met the overall ESO, but some individual units
became unbalanced. Many were very successful at manning soldiers above their
authorized strength while others struggled. Massive mobilizations in support
of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) have highlighted the importance of
manning units to their proper fill rates. The AR cross-leveled troops from
overstrength to understrength units, resulting in many problems. This thesis
formulates and solves a model addressing the problem of maintaining
appropriate AR unit manning. A prior thesis created a database of 30,000 zip
codes, 800 RCs, and 264 Military Occupational Specialties (MOSs) that
included demographic, vocational, and economic data and past military
recruit production. A second thesis established requirements and constraints
on recruiting. Together with these two theses, this work will form the Unit
Positioning and Quality Assessment Model (UPQUAM), an optimization model
that considers unit manning and the Military Available Population (MAP).
Results will indicate where the MAP best supports Army Reserve units. Each
unit will be associated with an existing Reserve Center (RC) and those that
are not supported within a Regional Readiness Command's (RRC) MAP will be
highlighted for later consideration in another RRC.
Brewer, R. C. U.S. Army Civil Affairs and the Fate
of Reserve Special Operations Forces in Support of Current and Future
Operations. Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar
2004. ADA423315. 26 p.
Abstract: Since the late 1980's soldiers holding the
Civil Affairs (CA) specialty have been the most heavily mobilized and
deployed element of the United States Army Reserve. This community
currently supports operations in five different hazardous duty areas around
the world and the current operations tempo does not appear to be abating any
time soon. The Army has come to a strategic crossroad concerning one of its
most utilized assets. The Army must decide how to support future operations
when those service members who have been mobilized for the maximum time
allowed by law are needed again. This paper will describe the CA mission
its deployment history over the past 15 years and CA's current deployment.
Additionally the current CA manpower crisis will be analyzed and
recommendations offered for continuing support to military operations around
Chun, Clayton K.
Who Stays and Who Goes: Army Enlisted Reserve and National Guard
Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War
College, July 2005. ADA436107. 38 p.
Abstract: Today, USAR and ARNG personnel serving with their active
components are a common sight and are transparent in many areas of
operation. Army reserve components have actively participated in Somalia,
Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, and for homeland security. Reserve
and National Guard units provide specialist and augmentation support for
active operations without reserve component support. National leadership
increasingly has called upon these reserve components to replace operational
active Army units as commitments grow in breadth and scope. Force
commitments around the globe will ensure future mobilizations of U.S. Army
Reserve (USAR) and Army National Guard (ARNG) personnel in areas away from
home and under conditions not foreseen just a few years ago.
Crane, Conrad C. Facing the Hydra: Maintaining
Strategic Balance While Pursuing A Global War Against Terrorism. U.S.
Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2002. ADA402686. 31 p.
Abstract: Arguments to maintain strategic balance
while fighting the global war on terrorism usually fall on receptive ears in
the Pentagon. Although some are ready to disengage internationally to focus
on fighting terrorists, most clearly see the value of continuing activities
that deter crises and assist tremendously in the resolution of conflict when
deterrence fails. Fewer seem to realize that maintaining strategic balance
will require more than just better guidance, planning, and training.
Increased force structure accompanied by revisions in the makeup of that
structure and by reallocation between the Active and Reserve Components
will be required to enable the Services to win both operational and
strategic victory in the war on terrorism, while also keeping the peace in
other parts of the world.
Davis, T. G. Assessing the Effects of Bush
Administration National Security Policy on the Air Force Active/Reserve
Component Mix. National Security Fellows, Harvard University, JFK
School of Government, 2003. ADA424524. 55 p. (No abstract available)
Dept. of Defense. Defense Manpower Data Center. Survey
and Program Evaluation Division. May 2003 Status of Forces Survey of
Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses. Nov. 2003.
ADA418114. 541 p.
Abstract: The Status of Forces Surveys (SOFS) is the
Web-based component of the Human Resource Strategic Assessment Program
(HRSAP) administered by DMDC for the Office of the Under Secretary of
Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSDP&R). HRSAP is designed to measure
the attitudes and opinions of the entire DoD community--Active and Reserve
Service members, their families and DoD civilian--on the full range of
personnel issues. The focus of this survey was on activation and
mobilization issues. In this tabulation volume are an introduction to the
survey, cross tabulations of the resulting data on a series of demographic
variables of interest to the various policy offices within OUSD(P&R), and a
copy of actual survey items. Results are tabulated by Reserve component,
paygrade, Reserve program, prior service experience, activated/deployed
status, employment/student status, race/ethnicity, gender, and component
further broken out by paygrade.
Dept. of Defense. Reserve Component Employment
Study 2005. Final report, Jul 1999. ADA367512. 132 p.
Abstract: In April 1998, Secretary of Defense William
S. Cohen issued the Fiscal Years 2000-2005 Defense Planning Guidance, which
directed the Department to conduct the Reserve Component Employment 2005
(RCE-05) Study. The study reviewed employment of the Reserve Component
(RC), and developed several recommendations to enhance the role of the RC in
the full range of military missions from homeland defense to major theater
wars (MTWs). The study examined how to make the RC easier to access and use,
and how to better train, equip, and manage it to ensure effective mission
fulfillment. In examining the RC role in the future, the RCE-05 Study
focused on three areas: homeland defense, smaller-scale contingencies, and
MTWs. While the study evaluated several initiatives in each area, certain
key themes emerged as particularly important to ensuring an effective
future Total Force.
Dept. of Defense. Defense Manpower Data Center.
Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component
Personnel: Volume 1. Military Background. Aug 2002. ADA415262. 683 p.
Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of
Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 2. Military Plans, Military Training
and Military Unit. Aug 2002. ADA415264. 449 p.
Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of
Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 3. Benefits and Programs. Aug.
2002. ADA415265. 668 p.
Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of
Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 4. Individual and Family
Characteristics. Aug 2002. ADA415266. 611 p.
Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of
Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 5. Civilian Work, Economic Issues,
Full-Time Active Duty National Guard/Reserve, and Military Life. Aug
2002. ADA415267. 781 p.
2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel:
Administration, Datasets, and Codebook. July 2002. ADA415263. 354 p.
Abstract: The 2000 Reserve Components Surveys (RCS)
gathered information about personal and military background, family
composition, economic status, preparedness, mobilizations and deployments,
retention plans, spouse and member labor force experience, satisfaction with
aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality-of-life issues. Survey
items are tabulated in these volumes for experienced Selected Reserve
members as a whole (the six components under Department of Defense DoD, plus
the Coast Guard Reserve), for experienced members of the six components of
the Selected Reserve in DoD as a whole, and for subgroups defined by
individual component, paygrade group, gender, program, and whether the
member had ever been deployed. Volume 1 of the tabulations covers military
background; Volume 2 covers military plans, military training, and the
member s military unit; Volume 3 covers benefits and programs; Volume 4
covers individual and family characteristics; and Volume 5 covers civilian
work, economic issues, full-time active duty National Guard/Reserve, and
military life. The preface of this report briefly discusses how the data for
these tabulations were collected.
De Vine, Thomas J. Back to the Future: Roles and
Missions of the US Army Reserve Component in the 21st Century. Strategy
research report, U.S. Army War College, 2002. ADA400729. 37 p.
Abstract: The United States is seeking to leverage a
strategic military pause, which resulted from the end of the Cold War, to
execute another historic transformation to insure it retains the premier
land force in the world. It is critical The Army begins this transformation
with the correct roles, functions and missions. However, it is the roles and
missions of its components, especially the reserves, where a passionate
debate rages. This research paper uses an analytical approach to
dispassionately and critically address the question concerning the
appropriateness of the current roles and missions of the United States Army
Reserve Component for the 2lst Century. It methodically reviews the history
of The Army, presents lessons-learned and develops from them a set of
criteria to test and analyze the Army's roles and missions. This leads to
recommended roles and missions for the Army Reserve Component for the first
third of the 21st Century.
Drelling, Elizabeth E. The National Guard: A Future
Homeland Security Paradigm? U.S. Army Command and General Staff
College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 14 May 2002. ADA402653. 135
Abstract: This monograph answers the question, Is the
National Guard (NG) Counterdrug (CD) Support Program a suitable model to
design an NG Homeland Security (HLS) force also capable of fulfilling the
National Guard's role as a first military responder and maintaining a
warfighting capability as a federal ready reserve force? In February 2001,
the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century recommended that the
National Guard (NG) fulfill a primary role in HLS and posture to assist
first responders and provide state governors with immediate command and
control capability tied to a National Crisis Action Center. Following the
Hart-Rudman study, Department of Defense (DOD) agreed HLS was the NG s
responsibility, however an NG HLS program was not yet initiated or funded.
To answer the question, the researcher conducts through a historical
overview of the NG, two DTLOMS analyses, and a comparative analysis to
determine parallels and shortfalls between the NG CD program and the
requirements for an NG HLS force. The overview describes the founding of
the militia, the dual role of the NG, and how the NG has played a major
part in military operations both at home and abroad. In state status, as
first military responders to domestic emergencies and disasters, NG members
also conduct hundreds of actual domestic support missions each year.
Analysis of the NG CD program confirmed that Title 32 NG CD members conduct
CD operations as well as maintain a first military responder and federal
ready reserve warfighter capabilities.
Edmunds, Robert G. Transforming the Naval Reserve:
How to Stay Relevant and Affordable in the Post-Cold War Environment.
Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 07 Apr 2003. ADA415089.
Abstract: The Naval Reserve has traditionally been
viewed as a force multiplier. Since the Gulf War, the Naval Reserve has been
called up in response to various contingencies. Although the Naval Reserve
markets itself as an economic benefit to the active forces, it is
fragmented, disjointed and expensive. In particular, reserve manpower levels
are based on a global war scenario rather than current and projected
requirements. In addition, their infrastructure is aged and costly to
maintain. The Naval Reserve needs to review its current manning levels with
respect to the current environment/requirements. Furthermore, it needs to
rid itself of aged training facilities to improve the quality of training
for the reserves and lower its maintenance costs. Once the Naval Reserve
addresses these two key areas, it can transform itself into a more cost
effective force and remain an asset to the active component.
Gallagher, John J.
The Future Role of
the United States Army Reserves in a Catastrophic WMD Attack on the
Homeland. Research paper, U.S.
Naval War College, 18 May 2004. ADA426012. 22 p.
Abstract: The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,
changed the lives of every American. With the horrible loss of life came a
wake-up call that our country was embroiled in a war with wily, determined
enemies. These enemies are fighting asymmetrically and are intent on
destroying our way of life by any means possible. Future attacks on our
nation are inevitable and our mindset must not be if weapons of mass
destruction are used, but rather how are we going to respond to the
aftermath when they are used . The USNORTHCOM Commander is responsible for
providing military assistance to civil authorities, which includes
consequence management operations in response to attacks using Chemical,
Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE). This
joint Department of Defense mission must be able to respond with all the
available resources that are needed in the most expeditious way possible.
Presently, there are logistical resources from the United States Army
Reserves (USAR) that are scarcely being implemented into the National
Response Plan. This paper proposes uses for the combat support and combat
service support elements of the USAR that could significantly assist the
efforts of the consequence management team during a WMD catastrophic attack.
Gallavan, Christopher G. Fast Guns and the Posse
Comitatus Act. Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 15 Apr
1999. ADA363944. 46 p.
Abstract: Transnational threats, such as terrorism and
international drug crime, and civil disturbances bode future domestic
support operations in the realm of law enforcement for the U.S. military.
The reserve components will play a key role in the growing homeland defense
mission and will have to be integrated into the mission to provide the
United States with an effective deterrent to potential domestic crises. The
Posse Comitatus Act (PCA) generally precludes the use of federal forces to
perform law enforcement actions. There are numerous constitutional and
statutory exceptions to the PCA which allow U.S. military forces to conduct
law enforcement operations. This paper examines national and military
strategy focused on the homeland defense policy within the context of the
ends-ways-means model. Countervailing civil-military relations policy
concerns arising out of the PCA are identified and the history of federal
forces use under the PCA discussed. Finally recommendations are made for an
overarching homeland defense policy.
Goergen, Daniel F. The Impetus Behind the Creation
of the United States Naval Reserve. U.S. Command and General Staff
College, 17 June 2005. ADA436673. 104 p.
Abstract: The U.S. Naval Reserve provides the
United States Navy with a ready pool of trained personnel as an augmentation
force to active duty manning. In the 230-year history of the Navy, the Naval
Reserve has only been organized for the last 90 years. This paper examines
the history of the Navy, identifying key elements within the United States
that lead to the authorization of the Naval Reserve in 1916. It examines the
political, economic, and strategic environment in the United States between
1775 and 1916, and looks at the strategic mission of the Navy and how it
changed during that time to require a ready reserve. The experiences of
naval leaders over time formed the basis of the theory behind the inclusion
of a viable reserve force. The gradual recognition of the changing and
expanding role of the Navy after the Industrial Revolution, the culmination
of America's Manifest Destiny, and the development of a strategic naval
policy, along with overseas territorial expansion, all provided the social
and political impetus that led to the authorization of the U.S. Naval
Reserve. The U.S. Naval Reserve continues to provide valuable support to the
Navy. Both are continuing to transform to maintain the relevance between the
Hansen, Michael L., MacLeod, Ian D., and Gregory,
David. Retention in the Reserve and Guard Components. Center for
Naval Analyses, Apr. 2004. ADA425458. 33 p.
Abstract: Policy-makers have proposed replacing the
current system of reservist participation with a new model, termed a
Continuum of Service. This new paradigm will give reservists the ability to
move seamlessly between full- and part-time status, and it relies on
enhanced volunteerism by providing more options for participation. A
reliance on volunteerism requires provision of adequate incentives. Before
making any changes, however, it is important to understand existing manning
problems and those that could arise as a result of a Continuum of Service.
Therefore, this study analyzes recent data to identify existing, chronic,
and potential manning challenges for each Reserve and Guard Component. Most
Components have experienced recent increases in retention. This is notable
because mobilizations and deployments have increased over this time period.
While overall retention is high and rising, there are still certain groups
with low retention. Junior enlisted personnel have very low retention,
while there is strong evidence that retirement benefits heavily influence
retention decisions of senior personnel. The data also provide evidence
that retention varies with the strength of one's civilian earnings
opportunities. Finally, it appears that many people work toward their
college degrees while in the Reserves but choose to leave after finishing
Haskins, Lawrence A. Determining the Army National
Guard's Role in Homeland Security and How to Reorganize the Guard to
Accomplish that Mission. U.S. Army War College, 09 Apr 2002.
ADA402059. 40 p.
Abstract: The purpose of this SRP is to define the
role of the Army National Guard in HLS (excluding National Missile Defense)
and is framed within three critical assumptions. First, the attacks on II
September highlighted the need for military units organized, trained and
equipped specifically for HLS. Secondly, it assumes no increases in force
structure so current forces must be used. Finally, the ARNG is the only
component within the Army with forces not allocated to a specific
warfighting mission. Though all elements of the Total Force are key players
in this mission, especially the Reserve Components, the scope of this paper
is limited to the Army National Guard. This paper begins by defining
Homeland Security and the Army's role as currently identified in the draft
Army HLS Planning Guidance and the Federal Emergency Response Plan. It then
examines the capabilities of the ARNG using the current force structure
metric, and assesses two courses of action as recommended by the National
Defense Panel and the Hart-Rudman Commission on the role of the Army Guard
in HLS. Finally, it will conclude with recommendations on the best method
to employ the Army Guard and some force structure changes required to
Herron, Sean M. Mortgaging National Security: Will
the Increased Use of the Reserve Components Impact the Ability to Mobilize
for War in the Near Future? Masterís thesis, U.S. Army Command and
General Staff College, 2003. ADA416889. 73 p.
Abstract: The operations tempo of the Army has
increased over 300 percent since the Gulf war. In that same period the size
of the Army has decreased by one-third. Many of the capabilities from the
active Army have been shifted to the reserve components. This has led to an
increased utilization of the Army's reserve components to meet the needs of
the Army. Today, soldiers from the active Army, US Army Reserve, and the
Army National Guard are fully integrated across the full spectrum of
operations to accomplish the Army 's missions. However, this increase in
workload for a part-time force structure must come at a cost. This thesis
attempts to define the impacts of the increased utilization of the reserves
and to determine how they might affect the ability to mobilize for a major
war. It demonstrates that the increase has positive effects at the macro (or
Army) level, as training and experience increase while aggregate operations
tempo decreases; and negative effects at the micro (or soldier) level as
increased reserve obligations put stress on soldiers, families, and
employers. This project also examines the role that the reserve components
play in the execution of the national military strategy.
Hillison, Joel R.
Out the Minuteman. Strategy
research project, U.S. Army War College, 03 May 2004. ADA423710. 33 p.
Abstract: The term Minutemen hearkens back to the
American Revolution and those militiamen who at a minute's notice were armed
and prepared to fight the British Regulars. Where are the Minutemen today? I
would argue that they no longer exist. Although Reserve Component forces are
on the front lines in Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo unlike their
active duty counterpart they are not structured or resourced to respond
rapidly in the event of a crisis. Unless the Reserve Components can
transform the way they do business and adopt a more expeditionary mindset it
is likely that they will become less and less relevant to the Total Force.
Maybe it is time to resurrect the Minuteman system? The MINUTEMEN concept
would create a more rapidly deployable expeditionary Reserve Component
force. This campaign capable force would fill a current void in available
manpower while enhancing the capability of the Reserve Components. The
concept is based on the Division Ready Brigade (DRB) Concept already used by
the Active Component. Under this concept all Reserve Component units would
rotate through pre-planned and tiered alert and readiness levels over a five
year period. Under the MINUTEMEN system all Reserve Component functions
(i.e. training recruiting etc.) would be based on the units position in the
five year cycle. The MINUTEMAN system would allow the reserves to remain
relevant and ready as the Regular Army transforms to adopt an expeditionary
force structure and mindset.
Huguelet, Charles T. The Dual Status of the
National Guard and the Total Force. Research paper, Air University, 04
Apr 2002. ADA420536. 38 p.
Abstract: The National Guard and Reserves are
organized and funded to supplement active forces when needed. In peacetime,
however, National Guard units belong to states, and state governors are the
commanders in chief. Unless federalized, Guard members are not subject to
the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and Guard units fall outside of the
formal Department of Defense (DoD) command structure. Under the law, the
National Guard is composed of individual, but nationally funded and
regulated state militias that can be federalized and used as a reserve
force. In 1947, a board appointed by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal
recommended permanently federalizing the National Guard by making it part of
the Reserves. The National Guard Association, a lobbying group representing
Guard interests, appealed to Congress, and Secretary Forrestal's
recommendation was rejected. In 1964, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara
recommended streamlining the Guard and Reserves by merging the Reserves
into the Guard. The Reserve Officer's Association intervened and Congress
again rejected the DoD's reserve component reorganization plan. Secretary
of Defense Melvin Laird coined the phrase "Total Force" in a memorandum
issued on August 21, 1971. Secretary Laird believed that placing more
emphasis on the National Guard and Reserves as part of a "Total Force" was
the most feasible way to achieve national defense objectives with limited
funding. Over the next 30 years, poorly equipped and inadequately trained
National Guard and Reserve units were transformed and are now critical to
the success of any military mission. This paper reviews the historic
background that led to the current law that places the National Guard under
control of the states as well as the impact of the Guard's legal status on
the Total Force. The paper offers three options for changing the statutory
scheme that governs the Guard and Reserves. (17 refs.)
Johnson, Neil L. Specialized Reserve Components
Teams Can Serve Joint Global Commitments? U.S. Army War College, 10 Apr
2001. ADA391812. 25 p.
Abstract: The United States is currently deploying
throughout the world at a rate approximately three times that of the Cold
War. These deployments stretch thin an Army structured and trained for two
near simultaneous Major Theaters of War. Small Scale Contingencies (SSC)
will remain a fact of life for the U.S. armed forces. SSC deployment
requirements will call for the ability to influence the world climate
through the use of rapidly deployed Joint Task Forces (JTF). These JTFs must
react to specific world problems with the ability to morph missions as
situational changes occur. Joint Forces Command is looking at a possible
cellular JTF Headquarters for centralized command and control of future
national missions. This headquarters would require support or attachment of
"plugs", force structure designated and trained in a specific capability, to
manage each mission. Some of these plugs could be located in the U.S.
rather than the mission theater and will most likely consist of members,
cells, and teams from all branches of the armed forces. In the late 199Os,
when the Army considered designs for Force XXI Corps Headquarters with JTF
capability, the size of the headquarters increased considerably. With
Current constraints in force structure the increase required to build this
capability into the corps headquarters is a huge limitation. The Force XXI
Corps Headquarters redesign effort was even postponed as efforts shifted to
the transformation efforts. The Army National Guard and the U.S. Army
Reserve are good sources for the trained cells and teams to reduce the
burden on the active Army and still supply the capabilities required in the
Jones, Brian D. The Abrams Doctrine: Total Force
Foundation or Enduring Fallacy? Strategy research project, U.S. Army
War College, 03 May 2004. ADA423689. 35 p.
Abstract: The Laird Total Force policy referred to
informally as the Abrams Doctrine has just exceeded thirty years as a
fundamental aspect of Department of Defense force structure and manning
policy. The Abrams Doctrine was principally driven by force structure
considerations and constraints that General Abrams faced in the post-Vietnam
era; General Abrams actual intention in advocating this policy was an
attempt both to save force structure and to resource the Reserve Component
forces appropriately. Despite this fact the two perceptions most often
associated with the Total Force policy today are: the necessity of gaining
popular support in committing U.S. forces to combat and a hidden intent of
the AC-RC force structure to limit presidential powers. Both of these
perceptions were adopted by various constituencies after the fact. and are
actually fallacies. At the same time a third function - that of limiting
prolonged combat - is a desired associated outcome. In December 2002
following the successful completion of Operation Enduring Freedom the
Secretary of Defense stated that the Total Force policy (e.g. the existing
Active Component/Reserve Component force balance) was hampering his ability
to deploy forces and suggested that he would seek changes. Secretary
Rumsfeld is correct that some aspects of the Abrams Doctrine should be
discarded but it is important that the essential core should be retained in
formulating a new Total Force policy. The original Abrams Doctrine was a
landmark compromise marked by each constituency achieving some victories
accepting some losses and the nation benefiting. The spirit of compromise
that resulted in the first Abrams Doctrine must guide the development and
serve as the enduring foundation for any future Abrams Doctrine. Any new
Abrams Doctrine must arrive at a force structure appropriate to todayís
threat while ensuring the continued relevance of the Reserve Component.
Ketchum, Gerald W. Securing the Homeland: How
Should the Army Fulfill its Role? Strategy research project, U.S. Army
War College, 18 Mar 2005. ADA432753. 33 p.
Abstract: Homeland security as defined within the
existing security strategy framework requires the United States, its
territory its people and its interests to be adequately protected. Leaders
within the United States have for decades attempted militarily to ensure
national security through forward basing and power projection delegating
homeland security to a secondary role. However the events of 11 September
2001 may have permanently changed how we must think about protection of the
homeland. The concepts of homeland security and homeland defense are
extremely complex intertwined and demand coordinated use of all the
instruments of national power both at home and abroad. Within this context
there is a fundamental question that remains unanswered. How should the Army
fulfill its homeland security role while continuing to meet the requirements
of forward presence global engagement and war fighting? This paper addresses
this issue by presenting the different definitions of homeland security and
homeland defense analyzing current security strategy documents and examining
the Department of Defense's current force sizing construct. The paper also
reviews the components of the Army and what they have contributed to
homeland security since 9/11 considers various recommendations by prominent
think tanks and finally proposes a course of action for the future. It
considers recommendations by the Hart- Rudman Commission the Gilmore
Commission the Heritage Foundation a RAND corporation Study and the Defense
Science Board. After comparing and contrasting these alternatives the author
recommends that the Army give the Army National Guard the primary
responsibility for homeland security dedicate twenty regionally focused Army
National Guard battalion size units to homeland security and dedicate
regional United States Army Reserve units with inherent homeland security
capabilities. This approach ensures that the nation's first priority of
homeland security is adequately resourced.
Knott, Garland M., Jr. U.S. Army Reserve Command.
Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 27 Apr 2000.
ADA378265. 20 p.
Abstract: Representing over 70 percent of the United
States Army's medical capabilities, units of the United States Army Reserve
(USAR) provide critical support on the battlefield. The American soldier
and the American people entrust Army Reserve medical units to provide the
best possible medical care to the sick and wounded. High quality medical
care is a morale building factor to soldiers and may be the intangible
element that bond soldiers to succeed in the face of adversity and danger.
The National Military Strategy of the United States requires that the US
Army Reserve medical units be prepared to provide support for two near
simultaneous Major Theater Wars (MTW). Maintaining ready Army Reserve
medical units that are capable of deploying in support of wartime missions
and current operations continues to be a challenge. To meet this challenge
Army Reserve leadership must understand the interlocking relationship among
recruiting, retention, training and mission accomplishment. While Army
Reserve medical units prepare to be ready for two MTWs, they continue to
receive additional Military Operations Other than War (MOOTW) missions that
further strains resources and personnel. As Army Reserve medical units move
into the 21st century, it will be imperative that the USAR leadership
develop innovative ways and means to meet the medical unit readiness
issues. This paper examines the history of Army Reserve's readiness issues.
It argues that the essential issue for defining the success of Army Reserve
medical units is in how they are organized in peacetime, and that this will
define how they perform the broad range of missions in the 21st Century. It
proposes an organizational structure that reorganizes medical units from
the current structure and places them into a single United States Army
Reserve Medical Command (USARMC).
Kuehn, William F.
The Role of the
National Guard in Homeland Security.
Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 11 Feb 2004. ADA423784.
Abstract: The United States experienced a wake-up call
as a result of the terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on
September 11 2001. Many civic and military leaders had previously warned of
the dangers by terrorists to this nation and its citizenry but efforts to
equip train and build appropriate safeguards to prevent and react to such
actions and measures had been limited. The events on that September morning
proved that this nation is no longer immune to terrorist atrocities within
the confines of the homeland and appropriate expedient and creative measures
will be needed to meet this asymmetrical threat. Reserve Component forces
have become the choice of military force to respond to incidences of
homeland security (HLS) although the primary mission for these forces
resides with the support to the combatant commanders for overseas
contingencies. Various plans and actions have taken place to properly
rebalance the force to better achieve success for both missions but much
work remains. This paper addresses issues related with the Total Force
Policy as it affects the National Guard forces to meet both the HLS mission
and the overseas combatant commander missions.
McCabe, Laurie E. Continuum of Capability - Army's
Force Structure. Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 20
Jan 2003. ADA416306. 35 p.
Abstract: The Army is in the midst of a
"Transformation," a transformation into the Army of the future, abandoning
20th Century concepts. We are molding a military force that's capabilities
based and responsive to new enemies but still maintains the ability to
successfully conduct traditional war. The creativity required to do this
cannot be limited to technological innovation, but must extend into areas
that will expand the accessibility of the Army. This requires a force that
has the ability to support a broad spectrum of requirements ranging from a
myriad of contingencies and peacekeeping missions to a major theater
conflict. In order to maintain relevance, Army structure and manpower must
be realigned to respond to a volatile international climate. This paper
lays out the rationale for the creation of one Army that meets these
requirements but does not emulate the integrated "one" Army that exists
between the active component (AC), Army Reserve (USAR) and Army National
Guard (ARNG). This proposal envisions one Army without components; spanning
the full range of manpower availability; resources by one appropriation; an
Army that has manpower flexibility; an Army that is sustained by a single
database and a homogenous personnel support system and, most importantly,
an Army that is based on capabilities required to support the National
Military Strategy. Examples of mobilization challenges, cost constraints,
time limitations and multiple deployments that are eroding U.S. military
effectiveness, will make the case for a service that is composed of soldiers
who serve based on the needs of the Army and its mission requirements not
restricted by boundaries that component subdivisions (COMPOS) create.
Profit, Gary M. Access to Reserve Component Units
and Individuals - Because It's Important. Naval War College, 16 May
1995. ADA297873. 34 p.
Abstract: In this essay, the author traces the rich
legislative history associated with access to Reserve component forces,
focusing principally on the post-Cold War period. With active participation
by various elements of the federal executive and legislative branches, it
presents a study in good government. The debate is continuing and healthy,
and one can readily discern its evolving nature. A short discussion of Total
Force Policy from its inception in the years following the Vietnam War
through the end of the Cold War precedes the body of the paper. It serves as
more than an introduction. It ensures that the reader realizes the
importance of the dialogue. (AN)
Randle, Lawrence L. Integrating Verses Merging of
the Guard and Reserve: Should the United States Continue to Maintain
Duplicate Federal and State Military Reserve Forces? Strategy research
project, U.S. Army War College, 25 Feb 2002. ADA400997. 38 p.
Abstract: Since the founding of the Republic, the
United States has always sought to secure for the American people a set of
basic objectives: the protection of their lives and personal safety, both
at home and abroad, the maintenance of the nation's sovereignty, political
freedoms, and independence, with its values, institutions, and territory
intact; their material well-being and prosperity. Never in the history of
the United States has the Guard and Reserve played a more vital role in our
National Defense. Since the end of the Cold War, the Army has increased its
reliance on the Guard and Reserve. The increased reliance calls for an
extraordinary assessment of the role and the politics of our National
Security. There is a call for change in the Guard and Reserve business
practices. This paper will mainly focus on the Army National Guard and Army
Reserve. It will compare and contrast the Guard and Reserve by looking at
the roles, missions, life cycle management, and significant contributions
to Homeland Security; to include Weapons of Mass Destruction and the roles
in Crisis Management and Consequence Management. This paper will address
how the Guard and Reserve can best contribute to Homeland Security. It will
address how the Guard and Reserve should partner together along with other
agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to carry out the
mission of Homeland Security. Finally, it will provide the analytical basis
and rationale for maintaining two separate federal military reserve forces,
along with the Guard's state mission.
Reynolds, George E., III. Reserve Components and
the National Will: Clausewitz, Total Force Policy and the Strategic
Realities of the 21st Century. Strategy research project, U.S. Army War
College, 07 Apr 2003. ADA415733. 61 p.
Abstract: In early 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald
Rumsfeld questioned the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General
Richard B. Myers, on military capabilities resident in the Reserve
Components (RC). Secretary Rumsfeld's query highlighted a deepening
Department of Defense concern regarding the ever expanding role of RC forces
in the United States' military strategy for the 21st Century. This paper
will review the historical development of America's RC and role of
citizen-soldiers as a means of galvanizing the national will in support of
military operations. It will also examine the linkage between Prussian
military theorist, Carl von Clausewitz's concepts and the formulation of the
Abrams Doctrine and Total Force Policy as they apply to the relationship
between the national will and military success. Lastly, this narrative will
analyze the relevancy that use of the RC equates to national will paradigm
in the strategic environment of the 21st Century.
Robinson, Spencer W. The Role of the Army National
Guard in the 21st Century: Peacekeeping vs. Homeland Security. Masterís
thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Dec. 2002. ADA411086. 95 p.
Abstract: In this thesis I examine the role of the
National Guard in supporting current National Security and National Military
Strategy. I argue that the global security environment has changed
drastically since the end of the Cold War making "Homeland Security" a
primary mission for the military, specifically the National Guard.
Concurrently, the unprecedented number of overseas deployments to perform
peacekeeping missions has severely affected the active Army's combat
capability. I argue that the US Army has not embraced the requirements for
"Homeland Security," focusing instead on maintaining its 10 active division
force structure. To meet the needs of National Military Strategy, the
active Army has instead relied on the reserve components to perform
overseas peacekeeping missions. I argue that the National Guard has also
looked to performing these missions as a method of institutional survival.
Together, both components have undermined the Constitutional underpinnings
of the Reserve Component as a strategic reserve, to be mobilized in cases
of "war or national emergency." I argue that making "Homeland Security" a
primary federal mission of the National Guard, along with restructuring
current combat, combat support, and combat service support ratios will
allow the National Guard to support National Military Strategy and "Homeland
Roxberry, Thomas G. The Failure of the Quadrennial
Defense Review to Formulate a Viable Defense Strategy Based Upon the
Strategic Reserve. Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 19
Mar 2004. ADA424240. 27 p.
Abstract: The National Security Strategy outlines an
ambitious military plan that focuses on transforming and maintaining a Force
strength sufficient to dissuade potential adversaries while providing the
President a wider range of military options. The Quadrennial Defense Review
acknowledges the Department of Defense's responsibility in providing these
options to the President as part of its Paradigm Shift in Force Planning. To
underwrite its new force-sizing construct the Department of Defense mandate
is to maintain sufficient force generation capability and a Strategic
Reserve to mitigate risks. Regrettably the Quadrennial Defense Review fails
to articulate the feasibility of how it plans to organize, resource, equip
and employ the Strategic Reserve that is so critically linked to America's
national defense. Adjunct to the Quadrennial Defense Review's treatment of
the Strategic Reserve is the Army's Vision and how it defines its role in
the defense of the National Military Strategy. The Army's vision and role
are underscored by a three-prong approach; people readiness and
transformation. Specifically within the element of Readiness the main
objective is to fully integrate the Active and Reserve Component forces.
This seamless integration while highly desirable to meet current operational
requirements directly impacts and impairs the effective employment of the
Army Reserve Component in support of its mandate to provide a Strategic
Reserve capability as outlined in the Quadrennial Defense Review Report. The
purpose of this research project is to address the Quadrennial Defense
Review's failure to realistically provide a viable strategy for the
employment of the Strategic Reserve in support of the National Security
Strategy and to refute the feasibility of the Army's capacity to provide a
ready and relevant force capable of serving as the Nation's Strategic
Schwallie, Randal A. Army Component Integration.
Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 09 Apr 2002. ADA400978.
Abstract: With today's focus on Army integration of
the Reserve Component, our Army as an institution and its soldiers would
benefit from one common accountability system that defines a successful
career in uniform and includes retirement benefits. The current system has
huge accountability and benefit inequities among the three components of the
Army. In today's force, all soldiers have a role in providing security for
our nation. We must merge our current management system to get the maximum
benefit from our soldiers, regardless of status. This study focuses on new
ways to increase productivity by providing equitable benefits to all
soldiers. Recommendations are provided that will benefit the Army as an
institution and all of its soldiers.
Scott, Willie D., Jr. The Impact of Army Reserve
Component (RC) Deployments on Army RC Recruiting and Retention.
Strategy research report, U.S Army War College, 10 Apr 2001. ADA390672. 36
Abstract: The end of the cold war has created numerous
challenges regarding our national security. A major challenge is the
increased reliance on the Army Reserve Components (RC) to meet requirements
of our National Military Strategy. This paper examines the impact of RC
deployments on Army RC recruiting and retention by researching past and
current trends and indicators. It includes documentation from various
sources that support my findings. This paper only evaluates the impact on
the United States Army Reserve (USAR), and Army National Guard (ARNG)
units. In an effort to eliminate strategic level decisions that may
negatively impact RC recruiting and retention, this paper identifies options
and measures that may be used to assess the frequency and methods by which
RC units are selected for deployments.
Smith, Robert E.
Warfare Reserve Force:
Reorganization and Strategic Employment for Integration and Support of the
Active Component. Monograph report, U.S. Army Command and General
Staff College, 01 Jan 2001. ADA387164. 62 p.
This monograph examines the current organizational
structure and employment of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Reserve Force,
to research the possibility of increasing force readiness through command
reorganization and implementation of a reserve employment strategy. The
historical significance of the Reserve Component illustrates the changes in
the reserve force imposed by a changing strategic environment. Important to
this study was the role the Reserve Component has played the throughout
history and its ability to adapt to world wars and peacetime environments.
The end of the Cold War created a change in the strategic environment that
required the military to adapt to full spectrum operations around the globe.
The Department of Defense initiated the Total Force Policy as a method to
integrate all resources, Active, Reserve, and National Guard, and meet
increasing objectives with a smaller force. This monograph examines the
current reserve force structure and employment of the Army and Navy to
illustrate the service commitment to the Total Force Policy. The Army and
Navy organize their Reserve Components to assume a more active role and
reduce the operational tempo of the active force. The U.S. Army Special
Forces (SF) organizes and employs reserve forces in the same manner as the
active SF Groups. The SF methodology for organization and employment offers
possible changes for NSW to implement. The current NSW organizational
structure and employment strategy illustrate the underutilized reserve
resource and the possibility of applying the lessons learned from the SF.
This monograph concludes that NSW can enhance force readiness through the
reorganization and employment if its reserve force. The total NSW force
active and reserve components, can provide better support to theater CINCs.
Spielvogel, Kenneth W. Supporting the Well-Being of
the Force. Strategy research project, US Army War College, 18 Mar
2005. ADA431893. 37 p.
Abstract: In October 1999 the United States Army began
its most significant transformation to move beyond the Cold War mind-set and
to reorient itself to a new era and a new century. While moving through this
transformation we must pay specific attention to the efforts of supporting
the Well-being of the Force. Well-being is an expansion of the concept of
the 1980s quality-of-life programs and is inextricably linked to readiness.
It is central to the active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve
soldiers and Department of the Army Civilians retirees and veterans. The
Well-being concept is the human dimension of Army transformation and since
its inauguration has made significant strides in its implementation. Over
the past five years the Army has started to institutionalize the concepts
and processes of Army Well-being. The current Chief of Staff of the Army and
his predecessor both recognized the true value for the support of Well-being
and the force. This paper will address the progress made with Army
Well-being concepts challenges that face the program and suggested
recommendations supported by theory and metrics which will help create the
momentum needed to further the Well-being framework. 37 pages.
Steinrauf, Robert L. Alternative Deployment
Duration - Reserve Component (ADD-RC) Center for Army Analysis, Feb
2003. Report number CAA-R-01-67. ADA411394. 38 p.
Abstract: This project examines some possible direct
effects of shorter Reserve Component deployments to small-scale
contingencies. The Reserve Component is used more frequently to support
these operations, many of which include a 180-day rotation. Ninety and
120-day rotations were examined as alternatives. The analysis indicates that
there is little benefit to the Army of shortening rotation durations other
than reducing the time individual reservists spend deployed. For the Army,
the costs increase, personnel tempo increases, and there is more risk in
Sullivan, Timothy I. The Abrams Doctrine: Is It
Viable and Enduring in the 21st Century? Strategy research project, U.S.
Army War College, 18 Mar 2005. ADA432674. 22 p.
Abstract: This research paper will seek to determine
whether the Abrams Doctrine is still viable and flexible enough to endure
and serve the National Security Strategy appropriately in the twenty-first
century. The intent is to review the influences that this doctrine and the
total force policy were purported to address and determine if those same
influences are applicable in the United States Army today and in the future.
This issue has gotten a lot of attention due to the current Global War on
Terrorism especially since the war is expected to last into the foreseeable
future or at least several more years as it enters its fourth year of
conflict. Secondly, the press consistently reports on the use of the
National Guard and Reserve Component and its soldiers' roles in Operation
Iraqi Freedom and the Global War on Terrorism with little regard to the 30
year old doctrine which sets forth the use of these soldiers. By reviewing
the facts of the past and the ways the Reserve Component was utilized in the
past, this paper will review the historical context of the Abrams Doctrine.
This historical data will be especially important to understand the context
in which the Abrams Doctrine was formulated and the objectives the
doctrine's authors were trying to accomplish through its implementation.
These objectives were threefold in scope and this paper will establish
whether those same influences or objectives apply to the current environment
and if they are still applicable to the United States Army of today and the
Thompson, Scott B. Mission Impossible: The Army
National Guard and the Global War on Terrorism. Masterís thesis, U.S.
Army War College, 11 May 2005. ADA432211. 35 p.
Abstract: As the Global War on Terrorism enters its
fourth year, we see more and more signs of stress on our Armed Forces. Our
troop commitments to both Iraq and Afghanistan look to remain at a
significant level for at least the next few years if our experience in the
Balkans is any indicator. The U.S. Army, to include both the Active
Component and the Reserve Component is and will remain the major force
provider for this and future operations. Given the current force mix between
the AC and RC, the Army National Guard will continue to provide a
significant portion of ground troops to this Theater of Operations. Today,
the ARNG finds itself in probably the most turbulent and challenging time in
its 350 year history. Simply put, for the first time in its history the
Guard is being asked to fight a major war while maintaining a peacetime
posture. At the same time, we are embarking on a road of unparalleled
transformation across the Total Army. I believe the ARNG is stretched beyond
its reasonable limits and that the continued use of the ARNG in this way
will quickly break the organization. Couple this with the emerging Homeland
Security requirements facing DOD, and I believe it is time to reevaluate the
roles and missions of the ARNG. My intent for this paper is to review some
historical challenges the Guard has always faced, examine the major
challenges associated with the Global War on Terrorism and offer some
possible solutions to these issues.
Tuomey, Michael S.
Transformation: an Assessment.
Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar 2004. ADA424311.
Abstract: The U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) has gone
through numerous transformations since its founding in 1908. The USAR's
leadership has proposed six "imperatives" that outline the Federal Reserve
Restructuring Initiative (FRRI). Critics say these changes have been
attempted before, but were unsuccessful. This paper describes the history
and current situation of the USAR. It then reviews possible transformational
lessons that the USAR can learn from another branch of the Armed Forces, the
U.S. Navy Reserve, (USNR) in terms of Naval Reserve recruiting, Naval
Reserve advancement, and Naval Reserve culture. Finally, changes for future
transformation efforts in the USAR are recommended, foremost among them
being a change in organizational culture.
Traylor, John, Murray, Thomas, & Kievit, James. Examining
Transformation of the Army Reserve and Army National Guard for the 21st
Century. Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership, Nov 2002.
ADA423885. 5 p.
Abstract: In response to the September 11 terrorist
attacks, new organizations such as the U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) and
the proposed Department of Homeland Security are emerging to focus on
protecting U.S. territory and population, and large numbers of the U.S.
Military's Reserve Components (RC) have been mobilized to perform domestic
security missions. Meanwhile, over the past decade numerous overseas
national security demands also have greatly increased deployments of the RC.
The combined impact of these new organizations and simultaneous domestic
and international demands raise potential issues which should be examined
regarding future RC roles, responsibilities, structures, and activities as
the Army prepares and executes its proposed transformation to an Objective
United States. Commission on Roles and Missions of the
Armed Forces. Directions for Defense: Report of the
Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces. 24 May 1995,
ADA295228. 136 p.
Abstract: The central purpose of the Department of
Defense is to conduct effective military operations in pursuit of America's
National Security Strategy. The central message for DOD from the Commission
on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces is in the 21st century, every DOD
element must focus on supporting the operations of the Unified Commanders in
Chief (CINCs). Everything else DOD does - from furnishing health care to
developing new weapons - should support that effort. The recommendations
made throughout our report seek to concentrate all of DOD's activities
toward that end. In establishing the Commission on Roles and Missions of the
Armed Forces, Congress told us to "review . . . the appropriateness . . . of
the current allocations of roles, missions, and functions among the Armed
Forces; evaluate and report on alternative allocations; and make
recommendations for changes in the current definition and distribution of
those roles, missions, and functions." Our view of the future gives urgency
to this effort. If America's experience since the end of the Cold War is
instructive, America's future will be marked by rapid change, diverse
contingencies, limited budgets, and a broad range of missions to support
evolving national security policies. Providing military capabilities that
operate effectively together to meet future challenges is the common purpose
of the military departments, the Services, the defense agencies, and other
DOD elements. All must focus on DOD's real product - effective military
Williams, Anthony L. Army Reserve and Army Guard
Structure, Future Roles and Challenges of the 21st Century. Strategy
research report, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar 2004. ADB300552. 29 p.
Abstract: As part of Army Transformation the
Department of Defense (DOD) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)
are conducting an analysis of the Army's ability to meet future U.S.
National Security Strategy (NSS) requirements. The purpose of this paper is
to further review the future structure of the Army Reserve and Army Guard
within the context of the Army's total force with particular emphasis on
future roles missions mobilization resource allocation and training; and
offer a proposal on how to best structure the Army Reserve and Army Guard
to meet 21st Century challenges.
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