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National Guard and Reserves Resource Guide
Compiled by
the Pentagon Library
Office of the Secretary of Defense Historians
National Guard Bureau Librarian and Historian
September 2005

Table of Contents

DTIC Documents

These documents are available in the Defense Technical Information Centerís public report database.  Defense personnel may be able to receive additional limited distribution and classified reports.  Visit the registration web site for more information.

Becker, Rita A. Enlisted Navy Reservists and Their Intention to Stay in the Navy Reserves Until Retirement Eligible. Masterís Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005. 93 p.

Abstract: This thesis examines factors that influence the retention of enlisted members in pay grades E1-E5 and E6 in the Selected Navy Reserve. Data were extracted from the 2000-2001 Navy Reserve Career Decisions Survey. Chi-square tests of independence were used to assess the relationship of various demographic, unit-type, critical-rate, and reserve experience variables to plans for retention to retirement eligibility. Thirteen factors significantly associated with planned retention for E1-E5s and 10 for E6s were identified. E6s indicated a higher retirement intention rate than E1-E5s. For both pay grade groups, males indicated a higher retirement intention rate than females, and married members indicated a higher retirement intention rate than non-married members. E1-E6 Prior Service members indicated a higher retirement intention rate than E1-E6 Non-Prior Service members. For both groups, Reserve Center/Readiness Command unit type was positively associated with planned retention while aviation and shipboard unit types were not significantly related. For E1-E5s, retirement intent was positively related to serving in a critical rating, while it was not for E6s. For E1-E6s, retention plans also were strongly dependent on opinions about quality of training, accomplishment recognition, family impact, civilian job impact, educational benefits, and senior leadership.

Bellamy, Oliver.  The Role of the Reserve Component in Transformation and Its Effects on Active Component/Reserve Component Integration.  Strategy research report. U.S. Army War College, 09 Apr 2002.  ADA404526.  33 p.

Abstract:  The Reserve Component (RC) has played an integral role in the Army's cold war strategy and can be expected to continue  playing a vital role as the Army's transformation campaign moves forward. With the theme of transformation centered on the  concept of a lighter and more mobile force, we will see radical departures from the old ways of doing business. This has  significant implications not just for combat forces, but also for support elements, which are heavily concentrated in the RC.  In this paper I will first explore the impact of Army Transformation on the RC, examining its implications from both a combat  and support perspective. I propose to begin this examination by analyzing the RC combat force, which is concentrated in the  Army National Guard (ARNG), focusing on its missions and structure. Particular attention will be given to Guard's  potential role as a Homeland Defense force and the need to adjust its structure to support this role. Then, I will examine  the Army's strategy for reducing support in the battle- space (footprint reduction), with emphasis on the U.S. Army Reserve  (USAR). I will determine the extent to which these efforts have moved forward and whether the USAR will have to redefine  itself (given its large support structure) in a reduced support in environment. Next, I will examine transformation and  current force capabilities. There is a need for the Army to maintain current force capabilities while transforming by  recapitalizing existing equipment throughout the total force. Finally, transformation holds the potential to derail current  integration efforts as the Army becomes disparate in its capabilities with the entry of interim and objective units into the  force. Current fielding plans reflect legacy forces being concentrated in the RC and Interim and objective forces  concentrated in the AC during the mid to later stages of transformation.

Binnendijk, Hans and others.  Transforming the Reserve Component:  Four Essays.  National Defense University, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, Feb 2005.  ADA435065.  52 p.

Abstract:  This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention. In these essays, the authors explore ways in which the Reserve Component might be transformed to face these challenges. The first essay calls for a fundamental restructuring of the Reserve Component in light of the largest mobilization since the Korean War, which has been fraught with problems in terms of combat readiness as well as pay, morale, and retention. Hans Binnendijk and Gina Cordero argue that a high-level national commission may be needed to design and gain support for that restructuring. In the second essay, Stephen M. Duncan calls for a complete re-thinking of U.S. security requirements and the related force structure, with an emphasis on the homeland security mission. In the new security environment, the American homeland needs to be considered as part of the battlespace. Duncan explores which conventional and homeland security missions should be assigned to Active Force Units and which to Reservists. Raymond F. Bell, Jr. argues in the third essay that one of the challenges facing Army transformation is the lack of a shared culture between the Active and Reserve Components. Bell examines how these separate cultures have negatively affected the Army's effectiveness as an organization and offers recommendations that move towards cultural change. Civil Affairs units are a central element to stabilization and reconstruction operations that require an integrated military and civilian response. The final essay by Michael J. Baranick, Christopher Holshek, and Larry Wentz proposes several ways to improve the overall effectiveness of Civil Affairs units.

Blakely, Frank E.  Call Out the Reserves: A Change in Paradigm for the Army's Reserve Components.  U.S. Army War College, 07 Apr 2003.  ADA414966.  41 p.

Abstract:  The Secretary of the Army initiated a study of the Army's employment of active and reserve components. Simultaneously,  the Undersecretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness announced an investigation that is evaluating the missions of the  reserve components with the objective of overhauling their structure and missions. The purpose of this paper is to present a  tool that can facilitate the decision-making process for assigning Army units, both active and reserve, to a particular  mission, specifically Military Operations Other Than War. The paper also examines the history of the current force structure  and how the Army, with its active and reserve components, can best provide a seamless force capable of meeting the needs of  the nation. It concludes with the proposal of an algorithm for use in decision-making, examples of its application, and suggestions for future research.

Brau, John W., Jr. Improving the Quality and Personnel Fill Rates of U.S. Army Reserve Units. Masterís thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005. 59 p.

Abstract: The most critical component of sustaining combat-ready United States Army Reserve (USAR) units is manning. Traditionally, the USAR has focused on maintaining the Congressionally mandated End Strength Objective (ESO), a total force requirement, at the expense of manning individual units. Historically, the AR has met the overall ESO, but some individual units became unbalanced. Many were very successful at manning soldiers above their authorized strength while others struggled. Massive mobilizations in support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) have highlighted the importance of manning units to their proper fill rates. The AR cross-leveled troops from overstrength to understrength units, resulting in many problems. This thesis formulates and solves a model addressing the problem of maintaining appropriate AR unit manning. A prior thesis created a database of 30,000 zip codes, 800 RCs, and 264 Military Occupational Specialties (MOSs) that included demographic, vocational, and economic data and past military recruit production. A second thesis established requirements and constraints on recruiting. Together with these two theses, this work will form the Unit Positioning and Quality Assessment Model (UPQUAM), an optimization model that considers unit manning and the Military Available Population (MAP). Results will indicate where the MAP best supports Army Reserve units. Each unit will be associated with an existing Reserve Center (RC) and those that are not supported within a Regional Readiness Command's (RRC) MAP will be highlighted for later consideration in another RRC.

Brewer, R. C.  U.S. Army Civil Affairs and the Fate of Reserve Special Operations Forces in Support of Current and Future Operations.  Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar 2004.  ADA423315.  26 p.

Abstract:  Since the late 1980's soldiers holding the Civil Affairs (CA) specialty have been the most heavily mobilized and  deployed element of the United States Army Reserve. This community currently supports operations in five different hazardous  duty areas around the world and the current operations tempo does not appear to be abating any time soon. The Army has come  to a strategic crossroad concerning one of its most utilized assets. The Army must decide how to support future operations  when those service members who have been mobilized for the maximum time allowed by law are needed again. This paper will  describe the CA mission its deployment history over the past 15 years and CA's current deployment. Additionally the current  CA manpower crisis will be analyzed and recommendations offered for continuing support to military operations around the globe.

Chun, Clayton K. Who Stays and Who Goes: Army Enlisted Reserve and National Guard Retention. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, July 2005. ADA436107. 38 p.

Abstract: Today, USAR and ARNG personnel serving with their active components are a common sight and are transparent in many areas of operation. Army reserve components have actively participated in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, and for homeland security. Reserve and National Guard units provide specialist and augmentation support for active operations without reserve component support. National leadership increasingly has called upon these reserve components to replace operational active Army units as commitments grow in breadth and scope. Force commitments around the globe will ensure future mobilizations of U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) and Army National Guard (ARNG) personnel in areas away from home and under conditions not foreseen just a few years ago.

Crane, Conrad C.  Facing the Hydra: Maintaining Strategic Balance While Pursuing A Global War Against Terrorism.  U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2002.  ADA402686.  31 p.

Abstract:  Arguments to maintain strategic balance while fighting the global war on terrorism usually fall on receptive ears in the  Pentagon. Although some are ready to disengage internationally to focus on fighting terrorists, most clearly see the value of  continuing activities that deter crises and assist tremendously in the resolution of conflict when deterrence fails. Fewer  seem to realize that maintaining strategic balance will require more than just better guidance, planning, and training.  Increased force structure accompanied by revisions in the makeup of that structure and by reallocation between the Active and  Reserve Components will be required to enable the Services to win both operational and strategic victory in the war on  terrorism, while also keeping the peace in other parts of the world.

Davis, T. G.  Assessing the Effects of Bush Administration National Security Policy on the Air Force Active/Reserve Component Mix.  National Security Fellows, Harvard University, JFK School of Government, 2003.  ADA424524.  55 p.  (No abstract available)

Dept. of Defense. Defense Manpower Data Center. Survey and Program Evaluation Division.  May 2003 Status of Forces Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses.  Nov. 2003.  ADA418114.  541 p.

Abstract:  The Status of Forces Surveys (SOFS) is the Web-based component of the Human Resource Strategic Assessment Program (HRSAP) administered by DMDC for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSDP&R). HRSAP is designed to measure the attitudes and opinions of the entire DoD community--Active and Reserve Service members, their families and DoD civilian--on the full range of personnel issues. The focus of this survey was on activation and mobilization issues. In this tabulation volume are an introduction to the survey, cross tabulations of the resulting data on a series of demographic variables of interest to the various policy offices within OUSD(P&R), and a copy of actual survey items. Results are tabulated by Reserve component, paygrade, Reserve program, prior service experience, activated/deployed status, employment/student status, race/ethnicity, gender, and component further broken out by paygrade.

Dept. of Defense.  Reserve Component Employment Study 2005.  Final report, Jul 1999.  ADA367512.  132 p.

Abstract:  In April 1998, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen issued the Fiscal Years 2000-2005 Defense Planning Guidance, which  directed the Department to conduct the Reserve Component Employment 2005 (RCE-05) Study. The study reviewed employment of the  Reserve Component (RC), and developed several recommendations to enhance the role of the RC in the full range of military  missions from homeland defense to major theater wars (MTWs). The study examined how to make the RC easier to access and use,  and how to better train, equip, and manage it to ensure effective mission fulfillment. In examining the RC role in the  future, the RCE-05 Study focused on three areas: homeland defense, smaller-scale contingencies, and MTWs. While the study  evaluated several initiatives in each area, certain key themes emerged as particularly important to ensuring an effective  future Total Force.

Dept. of Defense.  Defense Manpower Data Center.  Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 1. Military Background.  Aug 2002. ADA415262.  683 p.

Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 2. Military Plans, Military  Training and Military Unit.  Aug 2002.  ADA415264.  449 p.

Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 3. Benefits and Programs.  Aug. 2002.   ADA415265.  668 p.

Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 4. Individual and Family Characteristics.  Aug 2002.   ADA415266.  611 p.   

Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 5. Civilian Work, Economic Issues, Full-Time Active Duty National Guard/Reserve, and Military Life.  Aug 2002.  ADA415267.  781 p.

2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook.  July 2002.  ADA415263.  354 p.

Abstract: The 2000 Reserve Components Surveys (RCS) gathered information about personal and military background, family composition, economic status, preparedness, mobilizations and deployments, retention plans, spouse and member labor force experience, satisfaction with aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality-of-life issues. Survey items are tabulated in these volumes for experienced Selected Reserve members as a whole (the six components under Department of Defense DoD, plus the Coast Guard Reserve), for experienced members of the six components of the Selected Reserve in DoD as a whole, and for subgroups defined by individual component, paygrade group, gender, program, and whether the member had ever been deployed. Volume 1 of the tabulations covers military background; Volume 2 covers military plans, military training, and the member s military unit; Volume 3 covers benefits and programs; Volume 4 covers individual and family characteristics; and Volume 5 covers civilian work, economic issues, full-time active duty National Guard/Reserve, and military life. The preface of this report briefly discusses how the data for these tabulations were collected.

De Vine, Thomas J.  Back to the Future: Roles and Missions of the US Army Reserve Component in the 21st Century.  Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 2002.  ADA400729.  37 p.

Abstract:  The United States is seeking to leverage a strategic military pause, which resulted from the end of the Cold War, to  execute another historic transformation to insure it retains the premier land force in the world. It is critical The Army  begins this transformation with the correct roles, functions and missions. However, it is the roles and missions of its  components, especially the reserves, where a passionate debate rages. This research paper uses an analytical approach to  dispassionately and critically address the question concerning the appropriateness of the current roles and missions of the  United States Army Reserve Component for the 2lst Century. It methodically reviews the history of The Army, presents  lessons-learned and develops from them a set of criteria to test and analyze the Army's roles and missions. This leads to  recommended roles and missions for the Army Reserve Component for the first third of the 21st Century.

Drelling, Elizabeth E.  The National Guard: A Future Homeland Security Paradigm?  U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 14 May 2002.  ADA402653.  135 p.

Abstract:  This monograph answers the question, Is the National Guard (NG) Counterdrug (CD) Support Program a suitable model to  design an NG Homeland Security (HLS) force also capable of fulfilling the National Guard's role as a first military responder  and maintaining a warfighting capability as a federal ready reserve force? In February 2001, the U.S. Commission on National  Security/21st Century recommended that the National Guard (NG) fulfill a primary role in HLS and posture to assist first  responders and provide state governors with immediate command and control capability tied to a National Crisis Action Center.  Following the Hart-Rudman study, Department of Defense (DOD) agreed HLS was the NG s responsibility, however an NG HLS  program was not yet initiated or funded. To answer the question, the researcher conducts through a historical overview of the  NG, two DTLOMS analyses, and a comparative analysis to determine parallels and shortfalls between the NG CD program and the  requirements for an NG HLS force. The overview describes the founding of the militia, the dual role of the NG, and how the NG  has played a major part in military operations both at home and abroad. In state status, as first military responders to  domestic emergencies and disasters, NG members also conduct hundreds of actual domestic support missions each year. Analysis  of the NG CD program confirmed that Title 32 NG CD members conduct CD operations as well as maintain a first military  responder and federal ready reserve warfighter capabilities.

Edmunds, Robert G.  Transforming the Naval Reserve: How to Stay Relevant and Affordable in the Post-Cold War Environment.  Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 07 Apr 2003.  ADA415089.  32 p.

Abstract:  The Naval Reserve has traditionally been viewed as a force multiplier. Since the Gulf War, the Naval Reserve has been called up in response to various contingencies. Although the Naval Reserve markets itself as an economic benefit to the active forces, it is fragmented, disjointed and expensive. In particular, reserve manpower levels are based on a global war scenario rather than current and projected requirements. In addition, their infrastructure is aged and costly to maintain. The Naval Reserve needs to review its current manning levels with respect to the current environment/requirements. Furthermore, it needs to rid itself of aged training facilities to improve the quality of training for the reserves and lower its maintenance costs. Once the Naval Reserve addresses these two key areas, it can transform itself into a more cost effective force and remain an asset to the active component.

Gallagher, John J.  The Future Role of the United States Army Reserves in a Catastrophic WMD Attack on the Homeland.  Research paper,  U.S. Naval War College, 18 May 2004.  ADA426012.  22 p.

Abstract:  The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, changed the lives of every American. With the horrible loss of life came a wake-up call that our country was embroiled in a war with wily, determined enemies. These enemies are fighting asymmetrically and are intent on destroying our way of life by any means possible. Future attacks on our nation are inevitable and our mindset must not be if weapons of mass destruction are used, but rather how are we going to respond to the aftermath when they are used . The USNORTHCOM Commander is responsible for providing military assistance to civil authorities, which includes consequence management operations in response to attacks using Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE). This joint Department of Defense mission must be able to respond with all the available resources that are needed in the most expeditious way possible. Presently, there are logistical resources from the United States Army Reserves (USAR) that are scarcely being implemented into the National Response Plan. This paper proposes uses for the combat support and combat service support elements of the USAR that could significantly assist the efforts of the consequence management team during a WMD catastrophic attack.

Gallavan, Christopher G.  Fast Guns and the Posse Comitatus Act.  Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 15 Apr 1999.  ADA363944.  46 p.

Abstract:  Transnational threats, such as terrorism and international drug crime, and civil disturbances bode future domestic  support operations in the realm of law enforcement for the U.S. military. The reserve components will play a key role in the  growing homeland defense mission and will have to be integrated into the mission to provide the United States with an  effective deterrent to potential domestic crises. The Posse Comitatus Act (PCA) generally precludes the use of federal forces  to perform law enforcement actions. There are numerous constitutional and statutory exceptions to the PCA which allow U.S.  military forces to conduct law enforcement operations. This paper examines national and military strategy focused on the  homeland defense policy within the context of the ends-ways-means model. Countervailing civil-military relations policy  concerns arising out of the PCA are identified and the history of federal forces use under the PCA discussed. Finally  recommendations are made for an overarching homeland defense policy.

Goergen, Daniel F.  The Impetus Behind the Creation of the United States Naval Reserve.  U.S. Command and General Staff College, 17 June 2005.  ADA436673.  104 p.

Abstract:  The U.S. Naval Reserve provides the United States Navy with a ready pool of trained personnel as an augmentation force to active duty manning. In the 230-year history of the Navy, the Naval Reserve has only been organized for the last 90 years. This paper examines the history of the Navy, identifying key elements within the United States that lead to the authorization of the Naval Reserve in 1916. It examines the political, economic, and strategic environment in the United States between 1775 and 1916, and looks at the strategic mission of the Navy and how it changed during that time to require a ready reserve. The experiences of naval leaders over time formed the basis of the theory behind the inclusion of a viable reserve force. The gradual recognition of the changing and expanding role of the Navy after the Industrial Revolution, the culmination of America's Manifest Destiny, and the development of a strategic naval policy, along with overseas territorial expansion, all provided the social and political impetus that led to the authorization of the U.S. Naval Reserve. The U.S. Naval Reserve continues to provide valuable support to the Navy. Both are continuing to transform to maintain the relevance between the forces.

Hansen, Michael L., MacLeod, Ian D., and Gregory, David.  Retention in the Reserve and Guard Components.  Center for Naval Analyses, Apr. 2004.  ADA425458.  33 p.

Abstract:  Policy-makers have proposed replacing the current system of reservist participation with a new model, termed a Continuum  of Service. This new paradigm will give reservists the ability to move seamlessly between full- and part-time status, and it  relies on enhanced volunteerism by providing more options for participation. A reliance on volunteerism requires provision of  adequate incentives. Before making any changes, however, it is important to understand existing manning problems and those  that could arise as a result of a Continuum of Service. Therefore, this study analyzes recent data to identify existing,  chronic, and potential manning challenges for each Reserve and Guard Component. Most Components have experienced recent  increases in retention. This is notable because mobilizations and deployments have increased over this time period. While  overall retention is high and rising, there are still certain groups with low retention. Junior enlisted personnel have very  low retention, while there is strong evidence that retirement benefits heavily influence retention decisions of senior  personnel. The data also provide evidence that retention varies with the strength of one's civilian earnings opportunities.  Finally, it appears that many people work toward their college degrees while in the Reserves but choose to leave after  finishing their education.

Haskins, Lawrence A.  Determining the Army National Guard's Role in Homeland Security and How to Reorganize the Guard to Accomplish that Mission.  U.S. Army War College, 09 Apr 2002.  ADA402059.  40 p.

Abstract:  The purpose of this SRP is to define the role of the Army National Guard in HLS (excluding National Missile Defense) and  is framed within three critical assumptions. First, the attacks on II September highlighted the need for military units  organized, trained and equipped specifically for HLS. Secondly, it assumes no increases in force structure so current forces  must be used. Finally, the ARNG is the only component within the Army with forces not allocated to a specific warfighting  mission. Though all elements of the Total Force are key players in this mission, especially the Reserve Components, the scope  of this paper is limited to the Army National Guard. This paper begins by defining Homeland Security and the Army's role as  currently identified in the draft Army HLS Planning Guidance and the Federal Emergency Response Plan. It then examines the  capabilities of the ARNG using the current force structure metric, and assesses two courses of action as recommended by the  National Defense Panel and the Hart-Rudman Commission on the role of the Army Guard in HLS. Finally, it will conclude with  recommendations on the best method to employ the Army Guard and some force structure changes required to accomplish this.

Herron, Sean M.  Mortgaging National Security: Will the Increased Use of the Reserve Components Impact the Ability to Mobilize for War in the Near Future?  Masterís thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2003.  ADA416889.  73 p.

Abstract:  The operations tempo of the Army has increased over 300 percent since the Gulf war. In that same period the size of the  Army has decreased by one-third. Many of the capabilities from the active Army have been shifted to the reserve components.  This has led to an increased utilization of the Army's reserve components to meet the needs of the Army. Today, soldiers from  the active Army, US Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard are fully integrated across the full spectrum of operations to  accomplish the Army 's missions. However, this increase in workload for a part-time force structure must come at a cost. This  thesis attempts to define the impacts of the increased utilization of the reserves and to determine how they might affect the  ability to mobilize for a major war. It demonstrates that the increase has positive effects at the macro (or Army) level, as  training and experience increase while aggregate operations tempo decreases; and negative effects at the micro (or soldier)  level as increased reserve obligations put stress on soldiers, families, and employers. This project also examines the role  that the reserve components play in the execution of the national military strategy.

Hillison, Joel R.  Call Out the Minuteman.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 03 May 2004.  ADA423710.  33 p.

Abstract:  The term Minutemen hearkens back to the American Revolution and those militiamen who at a minute's notice were armed and prepared to fight the British Regulars. Where are the Minutemen today? I would argue that they no longer exist. Although Reserve Component forces are on the front lines in Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo unlike their active duty counterpart they are not structured or resourced to respond rapidly in the event of a crisis. Unless the Reserve Components can transform the way they do business and adopt a more expeditionary mindset it is likely that they will become less and less relevant to the Total Force. Maybe it is time to resurrect the Minuteman system? The MINUTEMEN concept would create a more rapidly deployable expeditionary Reserve Component force. This campaign capable force would fill a current void in available manpower while enhancing the capability of the Reserve Components. The concept is based on the Division Ready Brigade (DRB) Concept already used by the Active Component. Under this concept all Reserve Component units would rotate through pre-planned and tiered alert and readiness levels over a five year period. Under the MINUTEMEN system all Reserve Component functions (i.e. training recruiting etc.) would be based on the units position in the five year cycle. The MINUTEMAN system would allow the reserves to remain relevant and ready as the Regular Army transforms to adopt an expeditionary force structure and mindset.

Huguelet, Charles T.  The Dual Status of the National Guard and the Total Force.  Research paper, Air University, 04 Apr 2002.  ADA420536.  38 p.

Abstract:  The National Guard and Reserves are organized and funded to supplement active forces when needed. In peacetime, however,  National Guard units belong to states, and state governors are the commanders in chief. Unless federalized, Guard members are  not subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and Guard units fall outside of the formal Department of Defense (DoD)  command structure. Under the law, the National Guard is composed of individual, but nationally funded and regulated state  militias that can be federalized and used as a reserve force. In 1947, a board appointed by Secretary of Defense James  Forrestal recommended permanently federalizing the National Guard by making it part of the Reserves. The National Guard  Association, a lobbying group representing Guard interests, appealed to Congress, and Secretary Forrestal's recommendation  was rejected. In 1964, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara recommended streamlining the Guard and Reserves by merging the  Reserves into the Guard. The Reserve Officer's Association intervened and Congress again rejected the DoD's reserve component  reorganization plan. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird coined the phrase "Total Force" in a memorandum issued on August 21, 1971. Secretary Laird believed that placing more emphasis on the National Guard and Reserves as part of a "Total Force" was  the most feasible way to achieve national defense objectives with limited funding. Over the next 30 years, poorly equipped  and inadequately trained National Guard and Reserve units were transformed and are now critical to the success of any  military mission. This paper reviews the historic background that led to the current law that places the National Guard under  control of the states as well as the impact of the Guard's legal status on the Total Force. The paper offers three options  for changing the statutory scheme that governs the Guard and Reserves. (17 refs.)

Johnson, Neil L.  Specialized Reserve Components Teams Can Serve Joint Global Commitments?  U.S. Army War College, 10 Apr 2001.  ADA391812.  25 p.

Abstract:  The United States is currently deploying throughout the world at a rate approximately three times that of the Cold War.  These deployments stretch thin an Army structured and trained for two near simultaneous Major Theaters of War. Small Scale  Contingencies (SSC) will remain a fact of life for the U.S. armed forces. SSC deployment requirements will call for the  ability to influence the world climate through the use of rapidly deployed Joint Task Forces (JTF). These JTFs must react to  specific world problems with the ability to morph missions as situational changes occur. Joint Forces Command is looking at a  possible cellular JTF Headquarters for centralized command and control of future national missions. This headquarters would  require support or attachment of "plugs", force structure designated and trained in a specific capability, to manage each  mission. Some of these plugs could be located in the U.S. rather than the mission theater and will most likely consist of  members, cells, and teams from all branches of the armed forces. In the late 199Os, when the Army considered designs for  Force XXI Corps Headquarters with JTF capability, the size of the headquarters increased considerably. With Current  constraints in force structure the increase required to build this capability into the corps headquarters is a huge  limitation. The Force XXI Corps Headquarters redesign effort was even postponed as efforts shifted to the transformation  efforts. The Army National Guard and the U.S. Army Reserve are good sources for the trained cells and teams to reduce the  burden on the active Army and still supply the capabilities required in the mission theater.

Jones, Brian D.  The Abrams Doctrine: Total Force Foundation or Enduring Fallacy?  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 03 May 2004.  ADA423689.  35 p.

Abstract:  The Laird Total Force policy referred to informally as the Abrams Doctrine has just exceeded thirty years as a fundamental aspect of Department of Defense force structure and manning policy. The Abrams Doctrine was principally driven by force structure considerations and constraints that General Abrams faced in the post-Vietnam era; General Abrams actual intention in advocating this policy was an attempt both to save force structure and to resource the Reserve Component forces appropriately. Despite this fact the two perceptions most often associated with the Total Force policy today are: the necessity of gaining popular support in committing U.S. forces to combat and a hidden intent of the AC-RC force structure to limit presidential powers. Both of these perceptions were adopted by various constituencies after the fact. and are actually fallacies. At the same time a third function - that of limiting prolonged combat - is a desired associated outcome. In December 2002 following the successful completion of Operation Enduring Freedom the Secretary of Defense stated that the Total Force policy (e.g. the existing Active Component/Reserve Component force balance) was hampering his ability to deploy forces and suggested that he would seek changes. Secretary Rumsfeld is correct that some aspects of the Abrams Doctrine should be discarded but it is important that the essential core should be retained in formulating a new Total Force policy.  The original Abrams Doctrine was a landmark compromise marked by each constituency achieving some victories accepting some losses and the nation benefiting. The spirit of compromise that resulted in the first Abrams Doctrine must guide the development and serve as the enduring foundation for any future Abrams Doctrine. Any new Abrams Doctrine must arrive at a force structure appropriate to todayís threat while ensuring the continued relevance of the Reserve Component.

Ketchum, Gerald W.  Securing the Homeland:  How Should the Army Fulfill its Role?  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 18 Mar 2005.  ADA432753.  33 p.

Abstract:  Homeland security as defined within the existing security strategy framework requires the United States, its territory its people and its interests to be adequately protected. Leaders within the United States have for decades attempted militarily to ensure national security through forward basing and power projection delegating homeland security to a secondary role. However the events of 11 September 2001 may have permanently changed how we must think about protection of the homeland. The concepts of homeland security and homeland defense are extremely complex intertwined and demand coordinated use of all the instruments of national power both at home and abroad. Within this context there is a fundamental question that remains unanswered. How should the Army fulfill its homeland security role while continuing to meet the requirements of forward presence global engagement and war fighting? This paper addresses this issue by presenting the different definitions of homeland security and homeland defense analyzing current security strategy documents and examining the Department of Defense's current force sizing construct. The paper also reviews the components of the Army and what they have contributed to homeland security since 9/11 considers various recommendations by prominent think tanks and finally proposes a course of action for the future. It considers recommendations by the Hart- Rudman Commission the Gilmore Commission the Heritage Foundation a RAND corporation Study and the Defense Science Board. After comparing and contrasting these alternatives the author recommends that the Army give the Army National Guard the primary responsibility for homeland security dedicate twenty regionally focused Army National Guard battalion size units to homeland security and dedicate regional United States Army Reserve units with inherent homeland security capabilities. This approach ensures that the nation's first priority of homeland security is adequately resourced.

Knott, Garland M., Jr.  U.S. Army Reserve Command.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 27 Apr 2000.  ADA378265.  20 p.

Abstract:  Representing over 70 percent of the United States Army's medical capabilities, units of the United States Army Reserve  (USAR) provide critical support on the battlefield. The American soldier and the American people entrust Army Reserve medical  units to provide the best possible medical care to the sick and wounded. High quality medical care is a morale building  factor to soldiers and may be the intangible element that bond soldiers to succeed in the face of adversity and danger. The  National Military Strategy of the United States requires that the US Army Reserve medical units be prepared to provide  support for two near simultaneous Major Theater Wars (MTW). Maintaining ready Army Reserve medical units that are capable of  deploying in support of wartime missions and current operations continues to be a challenge. To meet this challenge Army  Reserve leadership must understand the interlocking relationship among recruiting, retention, training and mission  accomplishment. While Army Reserve medical units prepare to be ready for two MTWs, they continue to receive additional  Military Operations Other than War (MOOTW) missions that further strains resources and personnel. As Army Reserve medical  units move into the 21st century, it will be imperative that the USAR leadership develop innovative ways and means to meet  the medical unit readiness issues. This paper examines the history of Army Reserve's readiness issues. It argues that the  essential issue for defining the success of Army Reserve medical units is in how they are organized in peacetime, and that  this will define how they perform the broad range of missions in the 21st Century. It proposes an organizational structure  that reorganizes medical units from the current structure and places them into a single United States Army Reserve Medical  Command (USARMC).

Kuehn, William F.  The Role of the National Guard in Homeland Security.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 11 Feb 2004.  ADA423784.  27 p.

Abstract:  The United States experienced a wake-up call as a result of the terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on September 11 2001. Many civic and military leaders had previously warned of the dangers by terrorists to this nation and its citizenry but efforts to equip train and build appropriate safeguards to prevent and react to such actions and measures had been limited. The events on that September morning proved that this nation is no longer immune to terrorist atrocities within the confines of the homeland and appropriate expedient and creative measures will be needed to meet this asymmetrical threat. Reserve Component forces have become the choice of military force to respond to incidences of homeland security (HLS) although the primary mission for these forces resides with the support to the combatant commanders for overseas contingencies. Various plans and actions have taken place to properly rebalance the force to better achieve success for both missions but much work remains. This paper addresses issues related with the Total Force Policy as it affects the National Guard forces to meet both the HLS mission and the overseas combatant commander missions.

McCabe, Laurie E.  Continuum of Capability - Army's Force Structure.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 20 Jan 2003.  ADA416306.  35 p.

Abstract:  The Army is in the midst of a "Transformation," a transformation into the Army of the future, abandoning 20th Century  concepts. We are molding a military force that's capabilities based and responsive to new enemies but still maintains the  ability to successfully conduct traditional war. The creativity required to do this cannot be limited to technological  innovation, but must extend into areas that will expand the accessibility of the Army. This requires a force that has the  ability to support a broad spectrum of requirements ranging from a myriad of contingencies and peacekeeping missions to a  major theater conflict. In order to maintain relevance, Army structure and manpower must be realigned to respond to a  volatile international climate. This paper lays out the rationale for the creation of one Army that meets these requirements  but does not emulate the integrated "one" Army that exists between the active component (AC), Army Reserve (USAR) and Army  National Guard (ARNG). This proposal envisions one Army without components; spanning the full range of manpower availability;  resources by one appropriation; an Army that has manpower flexibility; an Army that is sustained by a single database and a  homogenous personnel support system and, most importantly, an Army that is based on capabilities required to support the  National Military Strategy. Examples of mobilization challenges, cost constraints, time limitations and multiple deployments  that are eroding U.S. military effectiveness, will make the case for a service that is composed of soldiers who serve based  on the needs of the Army and its mission requirements not restricted by boundaries that component subdivisions (COMPOS) create.

Profit, Gary M.  Access to Reserve Component Units and Individuals - Because It's Important.  Naval War College, 16 May 1995.  ADA297873.  34 p. 

Abstract:  In this essay, the author traces the rich legislative history associated with access to Reserve component forces, focusing principally on the post-Cold War period. With active participation by various elements of the federal executive and legislative branches, it presents a study in good government. The debate is continuing and healthy, and one can readily discern its evolving nature. A short discussion of Total Force Policy from its inception in the years following the Vietnam War through the end of the Cold War precedes the body of the paper. It serves as more than an introduction. It ensures that the reader realizes the importance of the dialogue. (AN) 

Randle, Lawrence L.  Integrating Verses Merging of the Guard and Reserve: Should the United States Continue to Maintain Duplicate Federal and  State Military Reserve Forces?  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 25 Feb 2002.  ADA400997.  38 p.

Abstract:  Since the founding of the Republic, the United States has always sought to secure for the American people a set of basic  objectives: the protection of their lives and personal safety, both at home and abroad, the maintenance of the nation's  sovereignty, political freedoms, and independence, with its values, institutions, and territory intact; their material  well-being and prosperity. Never in the history of the United States has the Guard and Reserve played a more vital role in  our National Defense. Since the end of the Cold War, the Army has increased its reliance on the Guard and Reserve. The  increased reliance calls for an extraordinary assessment of the role and the politics of our National Security. There is a  call for change in the Guard and Reserve business practices. This paper will mainly focus on the Army National Guard and Army  Reserve. It will compare and contrast the Guard and Reserve by looking at the roles, missions, life cycle management, and  significant contributions to Homeland Security; to include Weapons of Mass Destruction and the roles in Crisis Management and  Consequence Management. This paper will address how the Guard and Reserve can best contribute to Homeland Security. It will  address how the Guard and Reserve should partner together along with other agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management  Agency, to carry out the mission of Homeland Security. Finally, it will provide the analytical basis and rationale for  maintaining two separate federal military reserve forces, along with the Guard's state mission.

Reynolds, George E., III.  Reserve Components and the National Will: Clausewitz, Total Force Policy and the Strategic Realities of the 21st Century.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 07 Apr 2003.  ADA415733.  61 p.

Abstract:  In early 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld questioned the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General  Richard B. Myers, on military capabilities resident in the Reserve Components (RC). Secretary Rumsfeld's query highlighted a  deepening Department of Defense concern regarding the ever expanding role of RC forces in the United States' military  strategy for the 21st Century. This paper will review the historical development of America's RC and role of citizen-soldiers  as a means of galvanizing the national will in support of military operations. It will also examine the linkage between  Prussian military theorist, Carl von Clausewitz's concepts and the formulation of the Abrams Doctrine and Total Force Policy  as they apply to the relationship between the national will and military success. Lastly, this narrative will analyze the  relevancy that use of the RC equates to national will paradigm in the strategic environment of the 21st Century.

Robinson, Spencer W.  The Role of the Army National Guard in the 21st Century: Peacekeeping vs. Homeland Security.  Masterís thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Dec. 2002.  ADA411086.  95 p.

Abstract:  In this thesis I examine the role of the National Guard in supporting current National Security and National Military  Strategy. I argue that the global security environment has changed drastically since the end of the Cold War making "Homeland  Security" a primary mission for the military, specifically the National Guard. Concurrently, the unprecedented number of  overseas deployments to perform peacekeeping missions has severely affected the active Army's combat capability. I argue that  the US Army has not embraced the requirements for "Homeland Security," focusing instead on maintaining its 10 active division  force structure. To meet the needs of National Military Strategy, the active Army has instead relied on the reserve  components to perform overseas peacekeeping missions. I argue that the National Guard has also looked to performing these  missions as a method of institutional survival. Together, both components have undermined the Constitutional underpinnings of  the Reserve Component as a strategic reserve, to be mobilized in cases of "war or national emergency." I argue that making  "Homeland Security" a primary federal mission of the National Guard, along with restructuring current combat, combat support,  and combat service support ratios will allow the National Guard to support National Military Strategy and "Homeland Security."

Roxberry, Thomas G.  The Failure of the Quadrennial Defense Review to Formulate a Viable Defense Strategy Based Upon the Strategic Reserve.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar 2004.  ADA424240.  27 p.

Abstract: The National Security Strategy outlines an ambitious military plan that focuses on transforming and maintaining a Force strength sufficient to dissuade potential adversaries while providing the President a wider range of military options. The Quadrennial Defense Review acknowledges the Department of Defense's responsibility in providing these options to the President as part of its Paradigm Shift in Force Planning. To underwrite its new force-sizing construct the Department of Defense mandate is to maintain sufficient force generation capability and a Strategic Reserve to mitigate risks. Regrettably the Quadrennial Defense Review fails to articulate the feasibility of how it plans to organize, resource, equip and employ the Strategic Reserve that is so critically linked to America's national defense. Adjunct to the Quadrennial Defense Review's treatment of the Strategic Reserve is the Army's Vision and how it defines its role in the defense of the National Military Strategy. The Army's vision and role are underscored by a three-prong approach; people readiness and transformation. Specifically within the element of Readiness the main objective is to fully integrate the Active and Reserve Component forces. This seamless integration while highly desirable to meet current operational requirements directly impacts and impairs the effective employment of the Army Reserve Component in support of its mandate to provide a Strategic Reserve capability as outlined in the Quadrennial Defense Review Report. The purpose of this research project is to address the Quadrennial Defense Review's failure to realistically provide a viable strategy for the employment of the Strategic Reserve in support of the National Security Strategy and to refute the feasibility of the Army's capacity to provide a ready and relevant force capable of serving as the Nation's Strategic Reserve.

Schwallie, Randal A.  Army Component Integration.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 09 Apr 2002.  ADA400978.  35 p.

Abstract:  With today's focus on Army integration of the Reserve Component, our Army as an institution and its soldiers would benefit from one common accountability system that defines a successful career in uniform and includes retirement benefits. The current system has huge accountability and benefit inequities among the three components of the Army. In today's force, all soldiers have a role in providing security for our nation. We must merge our current management system to get the maximum benefit from our soldiers, regardless of status. This study focuses on new ways to increase productivity by providing equitable benefits to all soldiers. Recommendations are provided that will benefit the Army as an institution and all of its soldiers.

Scott, Willie D., Jr.  The Impact of Army Reserve Component (RC) Deployments on Army RC Recruiting and Retention.  Strategy research report, U.S Army War College, 10 Apr 2001.  ADA390672.  36 p.

Abstract:  The end of the cold war has created numerous challenges regarding our national security. A major challenge is the  increased reliance on the Army Reserve Components (RC) to meet requirements of our National Military Strategy. This paper  examines the impact of RC deployments on Army RC recruiting and retention by researching past and current trends and  indicators. It includes documentation from various sources that support my findings. This paper only evaluates the impact on  the United States Army Reserve (USAR), and Army National Guard (ARNG) units. In an effort to eliminate strategic level  decisions that may negatively impact RC recruiting and retention, this paper identifies options and measures that may be used  to assess the frequency and methods by which RC units are selected for deployments.

Smith, Robert E.  Naval Special Warfare Reserve Force: Reorganization and Strategic Employment for Integration and Support of the Active  Component.  Monograph report, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 01 Jan 2001.  ADA387164.  62 p.

This monograph examines the current organizational structure and employment of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Reserve Force, to research the possibility of increasing force readiness through command reorganization and implementation of a reserve employment strategy. The historical significance of the Reserve Component illustrates the changes in the reserve  force imposed by a changing strategic environment. Important to this study was the role the Reserve Component has played the throughout history and its ability to adapt to world wars and peacetime environments. The end of the Cold War created a change in the strategic environment that required the military to adapt to full spectrum operations around the globe. The Department of Defense initiated the Total Force Policy as a method to integrate all resources, Active, Reserve, and National Guard, and meet increasing objectives with a smaller force. This monograph examines the current reserve force structure and employment of the Army and Navy to illustrate the service commitment to the Total Force Policy. The Army and Navy organize  their Reserve Components to assume a more active role and reduce the operational tempo of the active force. The U.S. Army  Special Forces (SF) organizes and employs reserve forces in the same manner as the active SF Groups. The SF methodology for  organization and employment offers possible changes for NSW to implement. The current NSW organizational structure and  employment strategy illustrate the underutilized reserve resource and the possibility of applying the lessons learned from  the SF. This monograph concludes that NSW can enhance force readiness through the reorganization and employment if its  reserve force. The total NSW force active and reserve components, can provide better support to theater CINCs.

Spielvogel, Kenneth W.  Supporting the Well-Being of the Force.  Strategy research project, US Army War College, 18 Mar 2005.  ADA431893.  37 p.

Abstract:  In October 1999 the United States Army began its most significant transformation to move beyond the Cold War mind-set and to reorient itself to a new era and a new century. While moving through this transformation we must pay specific attention to the efforts of supporting the Well-being of the Force. Well-being is an expansion of the concept of the 1980s quality-of-life programs and is inextricably linked to readiness. It is central to the active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve soldiers and Department of the Army Civilians retirees and veterans. The Well-being concept is the human dimension of Army transformation and since its inauguration has made significant strides in its implementation. Over the past five years the Army has started to institutionalize the concepts and processes of Army Well-being. The current Chief of Staff of the Army and his predecessor both recognized the true value for the support of Well-being and the force. This paper will address the progress made with Army Well-being concepts challenges that face the program and suggested recommendations supported by theory and metrics which will help create the momentum needed to further the Well-being framework.  37 pages.

Steinrauf, Robert L.  Alternative Deployment Duration - Reserve Component (ADD-RC)   Center for Army Analysis, Feb 2003.  Report number CAA-R-01-67.  ADA411394.  38 p.

Abstract:  This project examines some possible direct effects of shorter Reserve Component deployments to small-scale contingencies. The Reserve Component is used more frequently to support these operations, many of which include a 180-day rotation. Ninety and 120-day rotations were examined as alternatives. The analysis indicates that there is little benefit to  the Army of shortening rotation durations other than reducing the time individual reservists spend deployed. For the Army,  the costs increase, personnel tempo increases, and there is more risk in the operations.

Sullivan, Timothy I.  The Abrams Doctrine: Is It Viable and Enduring in the 21st Century? Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 18 Mar 2005.  ADA432674.  22 p.

Abstract:  This research paper will seek to determine whether the Abrams Doctrine is still viable and flexible enough to endure and serve the National Security Strategy appropriately in the twenty-first century. The intent is to review the influences that this doctrine and the total force policy were purported to address and determine if those same influences are applicable in the United States Army today and in the future. This issue has gotten a lot of attention due to the current Global War on Terrorism especially since the war is expected to last into the foreseeable future or at least several more years as it enters its fourth year of conflict. Secondly, the press consistently reports on the use of the National Guard and Reserve Component and its soldiers' roles in Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Global War on Terrorism with little regard to the 30 year old doctrine which sets forth the use of these soldiers. By reviewing the facts of the past and the ways the Reserve Component was utilized in the past, this paper will review the historical context of the Abrams Doctrine. This historical data will be especially important to understand the context in which the Abrams Doctrine was formulated and the objectives the doctrine's authors were trying to accomplish through its implementation. These objectives were threefold in scope and this paper will establish whether those same influences or objectives apply to the current environment and if they are still applicable to the United States Army of today and the future.

Thompson, Scott B.  Mission Impossible:  The Army National Guard and the Global War on Terrorism.  Masterís thesis, U.S. Army War College, 11 May 2005.  ADA432211.  35 p.

Abstract:  As the Global War on Terrorism enters its fourth year, we see more and more signs of stress on our Armed Forces. Our troop commitments to both Iraq and Afghanistan look to remain at a significant level for at least the next few years if our experience in the Balkans is any indicator. The U.S. Army, to include both the Active Component and the Reserve Component is and will remain the major force provider for this and future operations. Given the current force mix between the AC and RC, the Army National Guard will continue to provide a significant portion of ground troops to this Theater of Operations. Today, the ARNG finds itself in probably the most turbulent and challenging time in its 350 year history. Simply put, for the first time in its history the Guard is being asked to fight a major war while maintaining a peacetime posture. At the same time, we are embarking on a road of unparalleled transformation across the Total Army. I believe the ARNG is stretched beyond its reasonable limits and that the continued use of the ARNG in this way will quickly break the organization. Couple this with the emerging Homeland Security requirements facing DOD, and I believe it is time to reevaluate the roles and missions of the ARNG. My intent for this paper is to review some historical challenges the Guard has always faced, examine the major challenges associated with the Global War on Terrorism and offer some possible solutions to these issues.

Tuomey, Michael S.  Army Reserve Transformation:  an Assessment.  Strategy research project, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar 2004.  ADA424311.  25 p.

Abstract:  The U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) has gone through numerous transformations since its founding in 1908. The USAR's leadership has proposed six "imperatives" that outline the Federal Reserve Restructuring Initiative (FRRI). Critics say these changes have been attempted before, but were unsuccessful. This paper describes the history and current situation of the USAR. It then reviews possible transformational lessons that the USAR can learn from another branch of the Armed Forces, the U.S. Navy Reserve, (USNR) in terms of Naval Reserve recruiting, Naval Reserve advancement, and Naval Reserve culture. Finally, changes for future transformation efforts in the USAR are recommended, foremost among them being a change in organizational culture.

Traylor, John,  Murray, Thomas, &  Kievit, James.  Examining Transformation of the Army Reserve and Army National Guard for the 21st Century.  Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership, Nov 2002.  ADA423885.  5 p.

Abstract:  In response to the September 11 terrorist attacks, new organizations such as the U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) and  the proposed Department of Homeland Security are emerging to focus on protecting U.S. territory and population, and large  numbers of the U.S. Military's Reserve Components (RC) have been mobilized to perform domestic security missions. Meanwhile,  over the past decade numerous overseas national security demands also have greatly increased deployments of the RC. The  combined impact of these new organizations and simultaneous domestic and international demands raise potential issues which  should be examined regarding future RC roles, responsibilities, structures, and activities as the Army prepares and executes  its proposed transformation to an Objective Force.

United States.  Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces.  Directions for Defense:  Report of the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces.  24 May 1995, ADA295228.  136 p.

Abstract:  The central purpose of the Department of Defense is to conduct effective military operations in pursuit of America's National Security Strategy. The central message for DOD from the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces is in the 21st century, every DOD element must focus on supporting the operations of the Unified Commanders in Chief (CINCs). Everything else DOD does - from furnishing health care to developing new weapons - should support that effort. The recommendations made throughout our report seek to concentrate all of DOD's activities toward that end. In establishing the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces, Congress told us to "review . . . the appropriateness . . . of the current allocations of roles, missions, and functions among the Armed Forces; evaluate and report on alternative allocations; and make recommendations for changes in the current definition and distribution of those roles, missions, and functions." Our view of the future gives urgency to this effort. If America's experience since the end of the Cold War is instructive, America's future will be marked by rapid change, diverse contingencies, limited budgets, and a broad range of missions to support evolving national security policies. Providing military capabilities that operate effectively together to meet future challenges is the common purpose of the military departments, the Services, the defense agencies, and other DOD elements. All must focus on DOD's real product - effective military operations.

Williams, Anthony L.  Army Reserve and Army Guard Structure, Future Roles and Challenges of the 21st Century.  Strategy research report, U.S. Army War College, 19 Mar 2004.  ADB300552.  29 p.

Abstract:  As part of Army Transformation the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) are  conducting an analysis of the Army's ability to meet future U.S. National Security Strategy (NSS) requirements. The purpose of this paper is to further review the future structure of the Army Reserve and Army Guard within the context of the Army's  total force with particular emphasis on future roles missions mobilization resource allocation and training; and offer a  proposal on how to best structure the Army Reserve and Army Guard to meet 21st Century challenges.

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